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acidity + metallic --------> sodium + hydrogen

acid + metal oxide---> salt & water

acidity + metal carbonate----> sodium + water + carbon

Element| Symbol| Valency

Hydrogen| H| one particular

Oxygen| O| -2

Carbon| C| four

Calcium| Ca| 2

Iron| Fe| a couple of

Aluminium| Al| 3

Sodium| Na| one particular

Potassium| K| 1

Magnesium| Mg| 2

Zinc| Zn| 2

Copper| Cu| a couple of

Silver| Ag| 1

Lead| Pb| two

Chloride| Cl| -1

Sulphate| SO4| -2

Hydroxide| OH| -1

Carbonate| CO3| -2

Nitrate| NO3| -2

Phosphate| PO4| -3

Hydrogen Carbonate| HCO3| -1

Acids and Bases inside the Laboratory

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В  В В В В В В

Some prevalent acids which can be found in labs are Hydrochloric acidВ (HCl), Sulphuric acidВ (H2SO4)В and Nitric acidВ (HNO3). A number of the lesser used acids are Acetic acidВ (CH3COOH), Hydrofluoric acidВ (HF), В Carbonic acidВ (H2CO3). В Hydrofluoric chemical p is a very corrosive chemical p and is accustomed to etch goblet. Some stomach acids are found in nature, like citric acid in certain fruits. These stomach acids are calledВ 'organic acids'. Good examples are:

2. Citric acid (from lemon or lime fruits and vegetables, )

* Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, while from specific fruits)

* Acetic acid (Vinegar)

* Lactic acid (in buttermilk)

* Tartaric acid solution (Tamarind)

5. Oxalic acid solution (Tomatoes)

Commonly found facets in laboratories and in our day to day life will be: Caustic soda, В NaOH; В Caustic potash, В KOH; Milk of magnesia, В Mg(OH)2; Liquor ammonia, В NH3; Cleansing powder, Tooth paste. One can possibly familiarize together with the acid bottom nature of some of the common substances by making use of litmus solution. Activity:

Produce solutions with the following substances:

'Borax', 'Blood', 'Milk', 'caustic soda', 'Lemon Juice', 'Bleaching powder', 'Tomatoes', 'Vinegar', 'detergent', 'Pure Water', 'Coffee', Preparing Soda'.

Set a drop of each from the above solutions on a watch-glass and test by adding a drop of litmus to it. Answer:

Lemon drink, vinegar, tomato vegetables, coffee...

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